Thursday, July 23, 2020

The things that can change your life

The things that can change your life… Meh. My last, like, three or four ideas for entries have not quite panned out. Oops. However, I am finally going to write this entry, which I intended to write a week ago, between now and the party tonight! I dont remember if I have ever told this story here before. If so, it was long enough ago that few of you were reading my blog. A little bit of context: Last weekend I walked out to an apartment in Cambridgeport for the party of Peeto 01 and his lovely fiancee Meaghan. Hes one of our zanier alums, and thats from a hall that has a lot of them. I hear, in the stories told by people who were around back then (including him) that when he showed up on campus as a freshman, he was very different. Clean-cut Pete 01, who lived in New House. According to him, they were nice people, but he didnt have much in common with them. Then he got a little crazier, started calling himself Peeto de la Noche, and moved to 5th East, into the smallest room in East Campus. There were three different parties going on that night, and the other two were a lot closer, but I didnt want to miss the chance to go say hello to Peeto. You see, Peeto is probably the reason that I ended up on 5th East, which has changed my life in all sorts of profound ways. When I was a new frosh, I was temped on 1st East with Crystle 07. I seriously considered transferring to Random Hall, but in the end decided to stay at EC. Then came hall rush. We had decided we wanted to stay roommates, and our top choice halls were 3rd East and 1st East. 5th East was, I think, 9th on our pre-hall rush list. But we wanted to do hall rush the way it was supposed to be done, not to mention get to know the halls of our new dorm, so we decided to visit each hall. We went through them in an orderly progression 1st through 5th West, then 1st through 5th East. When we got up to 5th East, we started walking nervously through the dark hallway. We had entered from the Walcott side, which is not where people tend to concentrate, so we didnt see anyone at first. Right before we got to where Walcott changes into Bemis, we came upon a short, stocky young man with a black tank top, long pretty blond hair (Ive always thought Peeto looked slightly like Legolas from the Lord of the Rings movies, with the long blond hair and elvishly-shaped face, only much shorter and more muscular. Elf meets wrestler meets punk rocker), and a big grin. He started chatting with us. I remember that we talked about musical tastes. He had already said that he played in a band and was a big punk rock fan, so Crystle was afraid that he would think she was a poser because she liked Weezer. No, I love Weezer! he exclaimed, and they started talking about their favorite songs. He talked about a few of his experiences on 5th East. We talked about how wed enjoyed Dorm Rush and the other halls, and he gave us some practical advice about life at MIT, only one tidbit of which I remember clearly. If a guy offers to install Athena on your computer, hes hitting on you. If he offers to install Debian on your computer, hes really hitting on you! Then Beth 05, who is awesome, joined us in the hallway. Wow, we thought. We misjudged this hall! It has the coolest people! Of all our visits to the different halls during hall rush, 5th East is the only one where I remember more than about a one minute segment, nearly two and a half years later. We still werent sure about living on a smoking hall (this turned out to be not nearly as big a problem as wed expected), but we moved 5th East up from 9th to 5th in our rankings. It was the only hall that moved more than two spots in either direction from where wed originally put it. Now, these days, were popular, and no way would anyone who put us 5th get us. But back then, we were not popular, and nobody put the hall higher than 4th. And there were tons of empty rooms that needed to be filled. So thats where we ended up. They wanted us, and it turned out to be the right place for both of us. But if it werent for our encounter with Peeto, I doubt wed have gotten it, because we would have put it so far down that thered be no way wed have been put there. And my life would have been very, very different. Im glad that it turned out the way it did. I like some of the older people, the ones who went here years ago, because they have really interesting perspective, or theyre very supportive, or they accomplished huge things in the activities that have become my hobbies, or theyre just nice people. Or something else. Or some combination of the above. I like Peeto because (in addition to being nice) hes wild and crazy and spontaneous and unexpected and doesnt hesitate to say Screw you and laugh at people when theyre being ridiculous and is in general a breath of fresh air. I wonder if hell show up at the party tonight and try to ride my unicycle down the hallway. I always put it out at parties, and like many, many, other people, hes never gotten beyond the Crash promptly into the wall stage of proficiency, which is one step beyond the also-popular Fall off before getting on properly stage. :) I hope you guys enjoyed my story. Next one will (I hope) have pictures! Cute pictures! Stay tuned

Friday, May 22, 2020

Jack London His Life and Work

John Griffith Chaney, better known by his pseudonym Jack London, was born on January 12, 1876. He was an American author who wrote fiction and nonfiction books, short stories, poems, plays, and essays. He was a very prolific writer and achieved worldwide literary success prior to his death on November 22, 1916. Early Years Jack London was born in San Francisco, California. His mother, Flora Wellman, became pregnant with Jack while living with William Chaney, an attorney and astrologer. Chaney left Wellman and did not play an active role in Jacks life. In the year that Jack was born, Wellman married John London, a Civil War veteran. They stayed in California, but moved to the Bay Area and then to Oakland. The Londons were a working-class family. Jack completed grade school and then took a series of jobs involving hard labor. By the age of 13, he was working 12 to 18 hours per day in a cannery. Jack also shoveled coal, pirated oysters, and worked aboard a sealing ship. It was aboard this ship that he experienced adventures that inspired some of his first stories. In 1893, at the encouragement of his mother, he entered a writing contest, told one of the stories, and won first prize. This contest inspired him to devote himself to writing. Jack returned to high school a couple of years later and then briefly attended the University of California at Berkeley. He eventually left school and went to Canada to try his luck in the Klondike Gold Rush. This time in the north further convinced him that he had many stories to tell. He began to write daily and sold some of his short stories to publications like Overland Monthly in 1899. Personal Life Jack London married Elizabeth Bessie Maddern on April 7, 1900. Their wedding was held on the same day that his first short story collection, Son of the Wolf, was published. Between 1901 and 1902, the couple had two daughters, Joan and Bessie, the latter of which was nicknamed Becky. In 1903, London moved out of the family home. He divorced Bessie in 1904. In 1905, London married his second wife Charmian Kittredge, who worked as a secretary for Londons publisher MacMillan. Kittredge helped to inspire many of the female characters in Londons later works. She went on to become a published writer. Political Views Jack London held socialist views. These views were evident in his writing, speeches and other activities. He was a member of the Socialist Labor Party and the Socialist Party of America. He was a Socialist candidate for mayor of Oakland in 1901 and 1905, but did not receive the votes he needed to get elected. He made several socialist-themed speeches across the country in 1906 and also published several essays sharing his socialist views. Famous Works Jack London published his first two novels, The Cruise of the Dazzler and A Daughter of the Snows in 1902. A year later, at the age of 27, he achieved commercial success with his most famous novel,  The Call of the Wild. This short adventure novel was set during the 1890s Klondike Gold Rush, which London experienced firsthand during his year in Yukon, and centered around a St. Bernard-Scotch Shepherd named Buck. The book remains in print today. In 1906, London published his second most famous novel as a companion novel to The Call of the Wild. Titled  White Fang, the novel is set during the 1890s Klondike Gold Rush and tells the story of a wild wolfdog named White Fang. The book was an immediate success and has since been adapted into movies and a television series. Novels The Cruise of the Dazzler (1902)A Daughter of the Snows (1902)The Call of the Wild (1903)The Kempton-Wace Letters (1903)The Sea-Wolf (1904)The Game (1905)White Fang (1906)Before Adam (1907)The Iron Heel (1908)Martin Eden (1909)Burning Daylight (1910)Adventure (1911)The Scarlet Plague (1912)A Son of the Sun (1912)The Abysmal Brute (1913)The Valley of the Moon (1913)The Mutiny of the Elsinore (1914)The Star Rover (1915)The Little Lady of the Big House (1916)Jerry of the Islands (1917)Michael, Brother of Jerry (1917)Hearts of Three (1920)The Assassination Bureau, Ltd (1963) Short Story Collections Son of the Wolf (1900)Chris Farrington, Able Seaman (1901)The God of His Fathers Other Stories (1901)Children of the Frost (1902)The Faith of Men and Other Stories (1904)Tales of the Fish Patrol (1906)Moon-Face and Other Stories (1906)Love of Life and Other Stories (1907)Lost Face (1910)South Sea Tales (1911)When God Laughs and Other Stories (1911)The House of Pride Other Tales of Hawaii (1912)Smoke Bellew (1912)A Son of the Sun (1912)The Night Born (1913)The Strength of the Strong (1914)The Turtles of Tasman (1916)The Human Drift (1917)The Red One (1918)On the Makaloa Mat (1919)Dutch Courage and Other Stories (1922) Short Stories An Old Soldiers Story (1894)Who Believes in Ghosts! (1895)And FRISCO Kid Came Back (1895)Nights Swim In Yeddo Bay (1895)One More Unfortunate (1895)Sakaicho, Hona Asi And Hakadaki (1895)A Klondike Christmas (1897)Mahatmas Little Joke (1897)O Haru (1897)Plague Ship (1897)The Strange Experience Of A Misogynist (1897)Two Gold Bricks (1897)The Devils Dice Box (1898)A Dream Image (1898)The Test: A Clondyke Wooing (1898)To the Man on Trail (1898)In a Far Country (1899)The King of Mazy May (1899)The End Of The Chapter (1899)The Grilling Of Loren Ellery (1899)The Handsome Cabin Boy (1899)In The Time Of Prince Charley (1899)Old Baldy (1899)The Men of Forty Mile (1899)Pluck And Pertinacity (1899)The Rejuvenation of Major Rathbone (1899)The White Silence (1899)A Thousand Deaths (1899)Wisdom of the Trail (1899)An Odyssey of the North (1900)The Son of the Wolf (1900)Even unto Death (1900)The Man with the Gash (1900)A Lesson In Heraldry (1900)A Northland Miracle (1900)Proper GIRLIE (1900)Thanksgivi ng On Slav Creek (1900)Their Alcove (1900)Housekeeping In The Klondike (1900)Dutch Courage (1900)Where the Trail Forks (1900)Hyperborean Brew (1901)A Relic of the Pliocene (1901)The Lost Poacher (1901)The God of His Fathers (1901)FRISCO Kids Story (1901)The Law of Life (1901)The Minions of Midas (1901)In the Forests of the North (1902)The Fuzziness of Hoockla-Heen (1902)The Story of Keesh (1902)Keesh, Son of Keesh (1902)Nam-Bok, the Unveracious (1902)Li Wan the Fair (1902)Lost Face (1902)Master of Mystery (1902)The Sunlanders (1902)The Death of Ligoun (1902)Moon-Face (1902)Diable—A Dog (1902)To Build a Fire (1902)The League of the Old Men (1902)The Dominant Primordial Beast (1903)The One Thousand Dozen (1903)The Marriage of Lit-lit (1903)The Shadow and the Flash (1903)The Leopard Mans Story (1903)Negore the Coward (1904)All Gold Caà ±on (1905)Love of Life (1905)The Sun-Dog Trail (1905)The Apostate (1906)Up The Slide (1906)Planchette (1906)Brown Wolf (1906)Make Westing (1907) Chased By The Trail (1907)Trust (1908)A Curious Fragment (1908)Aloha Oe (1908)That Spot (1908)The Enemy of All the World (1908)The House of Mapuhi (1909)Good-by, Jack (1909)Samuel (1909)South of the Slot (1909)The Chinago (1909)The Dream of Debs (1909)The Madness of John Harned (1909)The Seed of McCoy (1909)A Piece of Steak (1909)Mauki (1909)Goliath (1910)The Unparalleled Invasion (1910)Told in the Drooling Ward (1910)When the World was Young (1910)The Terrible Solomons (1910)The Inevitable White Man (1910)The Heathen (1910)Yah! Yah! Yah! (1910)By the Turtles of Tasman (1911)The Mexican (1911)War (1911)The Unmasking Of The Cad (1911)The Scarlet Plague (1912)The Captain Of The Susan Drew (1912)The Sea-Farmer (1912)The Feathers of the Sun (1912)The Prodigal Father (1912)Samuel (1913)The Sea-Gangsters (1913)The Strength of the Strong (1914)Told in the Drooling Ward (1914)The Hussy (1916)Like Argus of the Ancient Times (1917)Jerry of the Islands (1917)The Red One (1918)Shin-Bones (1918) The Bones of Kahekili (1919) Plays Theft (1910)Daughters of the Rich: A One Act Play (1915)The Acorn Planter: A California Forest Play (1916) Autobiographical Memoirs The Road (1907)The Cruise of the Snark (1911)John Barleycorn (1913) Nonfiction and Essays Through The Rapids On The Way To The Klondike (1899)From Dawson To The Sea (1899)What Communities Lose By The Competitive System (1900)The Impossibility Of War (1900)Phenomena Of Literary Evolution (1900)A Letter To Houghton Mifflin Co. (1900)Husky, Wolf Dog Of The North (1900)Editorial Crimes – A Protest (1901)Again The Literary Aspirant (1902)The People of the Abyss (1903)How I Became a Socialist (1903)The War of the Classes (1905)The Story Of An Eyewitness (1906)A Letter To Womans Home Companion (1906)Revolution, and other Essays (1910)Mexicos Army And Ours (1914)Lawgivers (1914)Our Adventures In Tampico (1914)Stalking The Pestilence (1914)The Red Game Of War (1914)The Trouble Makers Of Mexico (1914)With Funston’s Men (1914) Poetry Je Vis En Espoir (1897)A Heart (1899)He Chortled With Glee (1899)If I Were God (1899)Daybreak (1901)Effusion (1901)In A Year (1901)Sonnet (1901)Where The Rainbow Fell (1902)The Song Of The Flames (1903)The Gift Of God (1905)The Republican Battle-Hymn (1905)When All The World Shouted My Name (1905)The Way Of War (1906)In And Out (1911)The Mammon Worshippers (1911)The Worker And The Tramp (1911)He Never Tried Again (1912)My Confession (1912)The Socialist’s Dream (1912)Too Late (1912)Abalone Song (1913)Cupid’s Deal (1913)George Sterling (1913)His Trip To Hades (1913)Hors De Saison (1913)Memory (1913)Moods (1913)The Lover’s Liturgy (1913)Weasel Thieves (1913)And Some Night (1914)Ballade Of The False Lover (1914)Homeland (1914)My Little Palmist (1914)Rainbows End (1914)The Klondyker’s Dream (1914)Your Kiss (1914)Gold (1915)Of Man Of The Future (1915)Oh You Everybodys Girl (1915)On The Face Of The Earth You Are The One (1915)The Return Of Ulysses (1915)Tick! Tic k! Tick! (1915)Republican Rallying Song (1916)The Sea Sprite And The Shooting Star (1916) Famous Quotes Many of Jack Londons most famous quotes come directly from his published works. However, London was also a frequent public speaker, giving lectures on everything from his outdoor adventures to socialism and other political topics. Here are a few quotes from his speeches: Why should there be one empty belly in all the world, when the work of ten men can feed a hundred? What if my brother be not so strong as I? He has not sinned. Wherefore should he hunger—he and his sinless little ones? Away with the old law. There is food and shelter for all, therefore let all receive food and shelter.—Jack London, Wanted: A New Law of Development (Socialist Democratic Party Speech, 1901)Out of their constitutional optimism, and because a class struggle is an abhorred and dangerous thing, the great American people are unanimous in asserting that there is no class struggle.—Jack London, The Class Struggle (Ruskin Club Speech, 1903)Since to give least for most, and to give most for least, are universally bad, what remains? Equity remains, which is to give like for like, the same for the same, neither more nor less.—Jack London, The Scab (Oakland Socialist Party Local Speech, 1903)   Death Jack London died at the age of 40 on November 22, 1916 at his home in California. Rumors circulated about the manner of his death, with some claiming that he committed suicide. However, he had suffered numerous health issues later in life, and the official cause of death was noted as kidney disease. Impact and Legacy Although it is common nowadays for books to be made into films, that was not the case in Jack Londons day. He was one of the first writers to work with a film company when his novel, The Sea-Wolf,  was turned into the first full-length American movie.   London was also a pioneer in the science fiction genre. He wrote about apocalyptic catastrophes, future wars and scientific dystopias before it was common to do so. Later science fiction writers, such as George Orwell, cite Londons books, including  Before Adam and  The Iron Heel, as an influence on their work. Bibliography â€Å"Jack London.†Ã‚  Biography.com, AE Networks Television, 2 Apr. 2014, www.biography.com/people/jack-london-9385499.â€Å"Jack London - A Brief Biography.† JackLondonPark.com, jacklondonpark.com/jack-london-biography.html.â€Å"The Class Struggle (Speech first given before a Ruskin Club banquet in the Hotel Metropole on Friday, October 9, 1903.).†Ã‚  Sonoma State University, london.sonoma.edu/writings/WarOfTheClasses/struggle.html.â€Å"THE SCAB (Speech first given before the Oakland Socialist Party Local, April 5, 1903).†Ã‚  Sonoma State University, london.sonoma.edu/writings/WarOfTheClasses/scab.html.â€Å"Wanted: A New Law of Development (Speech first given before the Socialist Democratic Party on Thursday, August 1, 1901.).†Ã‚  Sonoma State University, london.sonoma.edu/writings/WarOfTheClasses/wanted.html.Kingman, Russ.  A Pictorial Life of Jack London. Crown Publishers, 1980.Stasz, Clarice. â€Å"Jack London: Biography.† Sonoma St ate University, london.sonoma.edu/jackbio.html.Stasz, Clarice. â€Å"The Science Fiction of Jack London.†Ã‚  Sonoma State University, london.sonoma.edu/students/scifi.html.Williams, James. â€Å"Jack Londons Works by Date of Composition.†Ã‚  Sonoma State University, london.sonoma.edu/Bibliographies/comp_date.html.

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Study Uses A Descriptive Research Method - 993 Words

This study uses a descriptive research method. Descriptive research tends to combine both qualitative and quantitative methods in its approach. The aim of descriptive research is not to discover a clear cut, cause-and-effect relationship so much as illustrate the realities of a situation at its surface, leaving the analysis of those facts to the researcher. DATA SOURCES: Primary Data: The Primary data was collected by administering a structured survey to employees and also through observations, interviews, and discussion with a management team. Secondary Data: The secondary data was collected through Internet research, records from Choongam Sports Center, etc. SAMPLING DESIGN: Sample population: There are total 50 employees working in the organization. Sample Size: Out of the total population, the sample is taken among respondents from Choongam Sports Center employees. Sample Area: The research was conducted at Choongam Sports Center. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Forests Free Essays

string(42) " The largest sanctuary is in West Bengal\." INTRODUCTION The  Wildlife in India  is a mix of species of different types of organisms. The forests of India are ancient in nature and composition. Indian people need to have more wildlife education. We will write a custom essay sample on Forests or any similar topic only for you Order Now They are rich in variety and shelter a wide range of flora and fauna and insects. The fact they have existed from time immemorial is substantiated from the ancient texts all of which have some mention of the forests. Even today in parts of India the sacred forests exist and are worshiped. The wildlife in India is equally diverse and rich. From big animals like elephants and tiger and deers and bisons to small reptiles the Indian forests are teeming with life force. But unfortunately most Indians don’t understand the importance of this rich wealth of forest and wildlife India has. Felling of tress and illegal poaching of animals are fast depleting the forest and wild life wealth of India. So efforts must be taken to stop these malpractices and conserve the forest and wild life of India. KINDS OF NATURAL RESOURCES Natural resources are resources in the environment that have not been disturbed by mankind. By resource, one refers to any physical entity which has limited availability. These resources occur in their natural form. Few examples are as follows: 1. Air, wind, and atmosphere 2. Plants (Flora) 3. Animals (Fauna) 4. Agronomy (the science of using plants for food, fuel, feed, and fiber) 5. Wildlife 6. Forestry and Agroforestry 7. Coal and fossil fuels 8. Range and pasture 9. Soils 10. Water, oceans, lakes, and rivers Something that people generally aren’t aware of is that everything we use in everyday life is derived from natural resources. For example, milk, which comes from cows, vegetables that come from plants, salt which is a mineral, etc. Wood that we get from tree is another example. It can be used to build a house, make paper, burn in fireplaces and in stoves for cooking, etc. FOREST RESOURCES Forests have a tremendous importance to the humans. They constitute important components of our environment. Forests are important renewable natural resource. Forest ecosystem is dominated by trees, the species varying in different parts of the world. Forests are intimately linked with our culture and civilization. The chief products which forests supply is wood which is used as fuel raw materials, new materials for various industries as pulp, paper, board, plywood, timber for furniture items. Forests influence flood conditions by intercepting surface run-off infiltration, evaporation, and most importantly provide suitable habitats for a number of important plant and animal species and this help in maintaining a broad genetic base from which future strains of species could be developed. Forests also have aesthetic and tourist values. Forest resources play an important role in the development of regions, states and nations. SOIL EROSION Soil erosion is when the soil is  blown away  by the wind orwashed away  by the rain. Soil erosion is common in areas with steep slopes, where trees have been cut down, in droughts when crops and other vegetation grows poorly and in rural areas which are overpopulated. Nepal, in the Himalayan Mountains, has severe problems caused by increased population density and steep slopes. Soil erosion can be reduced by building terraces on hillsides, irrigation schemes to overcome droughts, planting more trees to bind the soil together and make wind breaks, and using fertilisers in overpopulated areas to make the soil more fertile. It is very important that the farming techniques used do not damage the structure of the soil, as this makes it easily eroded. Good farming techniques include contour ploughing, crop rotation and keeping the soil rich in humus. THINGS WE GET FROM FOREST Trees  are amazing! They provide beauty, shade, oxygen, clean air and water, fruit, nuts and wood products such as paper, furniture and housing. These benefits are well known. But did you know that literally thousands of products are made from trees? Many are surprising! From the medicine L-Dopa for treating Parkinson’s Disease, to film in your camera, forest products are all around us. When Trees are used  to make lumber and plywood, there are leftover chips, bark sawdust. The chips and sawdust are made into wood pulp for paper and other products. Not too long ago, those leftovers would have been burned as waste. Bark is used for landscaping, and to generate electricity for paper and lumber mills. Modern forest products operations are very efficient at using every part of a tree. Nothing is wasted. Wood  is made of tiny fibers  (cellulose)  and the natural glue that holds them together  (lignin). When wood is turned into pulp for paper, heat and chemicals dissolve the lignin and release the cellulose fibers. Byproducts of this process are used in asphalt, paint, chewing gum, detergents and turpentine. TYPES OF FOREST Piece of land that is thickly covered with trees is the general of definition of a forest. Forest is also known as woods, weald or woodlands. Forests cover approximately 30% of land and 9. 4% of all the planet earth. They are also responsible for regulating our planet’s climate and act as large purifiers of airs, by absorbing carbon dioxide, and giving out oxygen. Types of forests are classified differently from one and another depending upon the species developed with the age of forests, soil found in those forests, the density of trees and history of the geological region. So forests are divided into following main types: * Tropical forest * Sub tropical forest * Plantations * Boreal Forest * Temperate forest * Seasonal or monsoon forest CONSERVATION OF FOREST Our Government has also made laws to prevent unnecessary felling of trees. Government has decided to declare certain forests as protected areas. These protected areas are called Reserves or wild Life Sanctuaries. Here no one is allowed to hunt animals. There are about 150 wild life sanctuaries in India. People come from all over the world to see these sanctuaries. They consist of some of the most beautiful and rare animals. The largest sanctuary is in West Bengal. You read "Forests" in category "Papers" It is called the Sunderbans. This sanctuary is famous for its Bengal tigers. The other well known sanctuaries are Kaziranga in Assam, in Gujarat, Bundipur in Karnataka, Kanha in Madhya Pradesh. Corbetf in Uttar Pradesh, Palamau in Bihar and Periyar in Kerala. The Government has made plans to grow more trees. Vanmahotsava is celebrated every year to plant more trees. Thousands of school children participate in the Van-mahotsava and plant trees every year. Chipko Movement and Narmada Bachao Andolan are some of the movements to save forests and wild life in India. Chipko Movement was started by Shri Sunderlal Bahuguna in Tehri District of Uttar Pradesh. The women of a village in Tehri clung to the trees and protected them from being cut down. Shrimati Medha Patekar started a Movement named Narmada Bachao Andolan to save the forests and wild life in the Narmada region. DEFORESTATION Deforestation,  clearance  or  clearing  is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a nonforest use. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use. About half of the world’s original forests had been destroyed by 2011, the majority during the previous 50 years. Since 1990 half of the world’s  rain forests  have been destroyed. More than half of the animal and plant species in the world live in tropical forests. The term  deforestation  is often misused to describe any activity where all trees in an area are removed. However in  temperate climates, the  removal of all trees in an area in conformance with  sustainable forestry  practices—is correctly described as  regeneration harvest. In  temperate mesic climates, natural regeneration of forest stands often will not occur in the absence of disturbance, whether natural or anthropogenic. Furthermore, biodiversity after regeneration harvest often mimics that found after natural disturbance, including biodiversity loss after naturally occurring rainforest destruction. Deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees are cut down to be used or sold as fuel (sometimes in the form of  charcoal) or timber, while cleared land is used as  pasture  for livestock, plantations of commodities, and settlements. AFFORESTATION Afforestation  is the establishment of a forest or stand of trees in an area where there was no forest. Reforestation  is the reestablishment of forest cover, either naturally (by natural seeding, coppice, or root suckers) or artificially (by direct seeding or planting). Many governments and non-governmental organizations directly engage in programs of  afforestation  to create forests, increase  carbon capture  and  sequestration, and help to anthropogenically improve  biodiversity. (In the UK, afforestation may mean converting the legal status of some land to â€Å"royal forest†. ) Special tools, e. g. tree planting bar, are used to make planting of trees easier and faster. Less than 0,5% of South Africa is covered by indigenous forests. Owing to their slow growth and sensitivity to logging, these forests cannot supply the majority of our country’s wood requirements. Additional fast-growing trees are planted to cater for the demand for wood products. Commercial forests, or plantations, cover 1,1% of South Africa. VANAMAHOTSAVA Van=forests mahotsava=festival So vanamahotsava is the festival of forests. The day to remind all of us that we should take care of priceless forests. Vanamahotsava is a big celebration day for forest officials, forest rangers, DFOs, employees, and their contractors, suppliers, mahaldars etc. On this day they all get together and take decision n promise for the coming year and calculate the present year’s gross income. On this day they enquire about their deposit in the bank, the deposit which is said to be their side income, happens to b their monthly salary and send their family member to the bank to meet the branch manager to enquire how to make fixed deposits in some Alia’s name. Actually they not require the meagre salary they earn as their legitimate income, when they earn daily in multiples of that. WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES India  has over 441  animal sanctuaries, referred to as  Wildlife sanctuaries  (IUCN  Category IVProtected Area). Among these, the 28  Tiger Reserves  are governed by  Project Tiger, and are of special significance in the conservation of the  tiger. Some wildlife sanctuaries are specifically named  Bird Sanctuary, e. g. Keoladeo National Park  before attained National Park status. Many National Parks were initially Wildlife Sanctuaries. Wildlife sanctuaries of national importance to conservation, usually due to some flagship faunal species, are named  National Wildlife Sanctuary, like  National Chambal (Gharial) Wildlife Sanctuary  for conserving the  Gharial  (1978) NATIONAL PARKS A  national park  is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. It is most commonly a  natural park. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, an international organization, the  International Union for Conservation of Nature  (IUCN), and its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined â€Å"National Park† as its  Category II  type of  protected areas. While ideas for this type of national park had been suggested previously, the United States established the first such one,  Yellowstone National Park, in 1872. The largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the  Northeast Greenland National Park, which was established in 1974. According to the IUCN, there were 6,555 national parks worldwide in 2006 that meet its criteria. INTRODUCTION The  Wildlife in India  is a mix of species of different types of organisms. The forests of India are ancient in nature and composition. Indian people need to have more wildlife education. They are rich in variety and shelter a wide range of flora and fauna and insects. The fact they have existed from time immemorial is substantiated from the ancient texts all of which have some mention of the forests. Even today in parts of India the sacred forests exist and are worshiped. The wildlife in India is equally diverse and rich. From big animals like elephants and tiger and deers and bisons to small reptiles the Indian forests are teeming with life force. But unfortunately most Indians don’t understand the importance of this rich wealth of forest and wildlife India has. Felling of tress and illegal poaching of animals are fast depleting the forest and wild life wealth of India. So efforts must be taken to stop these malpractices and conserve the forest and wild life of India. KINDS OF NATURAL RESOURCES Natural resources are resources in the environment that have not been disturbed by mankind. By resource, one refers to any physical entity which has limited availability. These resources occur in their natural form. Few examples are as follows: 1. Air, wind, and atmosphere 2. Plants (Flora) 3. Animals (Fauna) 4. Agronomy (the science of using plants for food, fuel, feed, and fiber) 5. Wildlife 6. Forestry and Agroforestry 7. Coal and fossil fuels 8. Range and pasture . Soils 10. Water, oceans, lakes, and rivers Something that people generally aren’t aware of is that everything we use in everyday life is derived from natural resources. For example, milk, which comes from cows, vegetables that come from plants, salt which is a mineral, etc. Wood that we get from tree is another example. It can be used to build a house, make paper, burn in fireplaces and in stoves for cooking, etc. FOREST RESOURCES Forests have a tremendous importance to the humans. They constitute important components of our environment. Forests are important renewable natural resource. Forest ecosystem is dominated by trees, the species varying in different parts of the world. Forests are intimately linked with our culture and civilization. The chief products which forests supply is wood which is used as fuel raw materials, new materials for various industries as pulp, paper, board, plywood, timber for furniture items. Forests influence flood conditions by intercepting surface run-off infiltration, evaporation, and most importantly provide suitable habitats for a number of important plant and animal species and this help in maintaining a broad genetic base from which future strains of species could be developed. Forests also have aesthetic and tourist values. Forest resources play an important role in the development of regions, states and nations. SOIL EROSION Soil erosion is when the soil is  blown away  by the wind orwashed away  by the rain. Soil erosion is common in areas with steep slopes, where trees have been cut down, in droughts when crops and other vegetation grows poorly and in rural areas which are overpopulated. Nepal, in the Himalayan Mountains, has severe problems caused by increased population density and steep slopes. Soil erosion can be reduced by building terraces on hillsides, irrigation schemes to overcome droughts, planting more trees to bind the soil together and make wind breaks, and using fertilisers in overpopulated areas to make the soil more fertile. It is very important that the farming techniques used do not damage the structure of the soil, as this makes it easily eroded. Good farming techniques include contour ploughing, crop rotation and keeping the soil rich in humus. THINGS WE GET FROM FOREST Trees  are amazing! They provide beauty, shade, oxygen, clean air and water, fruit, nuts and wood products such as paper, furniture and housing. These benefits are well known. But did you know that literally thousands of products are made from trees? Many are surprising! From the medicine L-Dopa for treating Parkinson’s Disease, to film in your camera, forest products are all around us. When Trees are used  to make lumber and plywood, there are leftover chips, bark sawdust. The chips and sawdust are made into wood pulp for paper and other products. Not too long ago, those leftovers would have been burned as waste. Bark is used for landscaping, and to generate electricity for paper and lumber mills. Modern forest products operations are very efficient at using every part of a tree. Nothing is wasted. Wood  is made of tiny fibers  (cellulose)  and the natural glue that holds them together  (lignin). When wood is turned into pulp for paper, heat and chemicals dissolve the lignin and release the cellulose fibers. Byproducts of this process are used in asphalt, paint, chewing gum, detergents and turpentine. TYPES OF FOREST Piece of land that is thickly covered with trees is the general of definition of a forest. Forest is also known as woods, weald or woodlands. Forests cover approximately 30% of land and 9. 4% of all the planet earth. They are also responsible for regulating our planet’s climate and act as large purifiers of airs, by absorbing carbon dioxide, and giving out oxygen. Types of forests are classified differently from one and another depending upon the species developed with the age of forests, soil found in those forests, the density of trees and history of the geological region. So forests are divided into following main types: * Tropical forest * Sub tropical forest * Plantations * Boreal Forest * Temperate forest * Seasonal or monsoon forest CONSERVATION OF FOREST Our Government has also made laws to prevent unnecessary felling of trees. Government has decided to declare certain forests as protected areas. These protected areas are called Reserves or wild Life Sanctuaries. Here no one is allowed to hunt animals. There are about 150 wild life sanctuaries in India. People come from all over the world to see these sanctuaries. They consist of some of the most beautiful and rare animals. The largest sanctuary is in West Bengal. It is called the Sunderbans. This sanctuary is famous for its Bengal tigers. The other well known sanctuaries are Kaziranga in Assam, in Gujarat, Bundipur in Karnataka, Kanha in Madhya Pradesh. Corbetf in Uttar Pradesh, Palamau in Bihar and Periyar in Kerala. The Government has made plans to grow more trees. Vanmahotsava is celebrated every year to plant more trees. Thousands of school children participate in the Van-mahotsava and plant trees every year. Chipko Movement and Narmada Bachao Andolan are some of the movements to save forests and wild life in India. Chipko Movement was started by Shri Sunderlal Bahuguna in Tehri District of Uttar Pradesh. The women of a village in Tehri clung to the trees and protected them from being cut down. Shrimati Medha Patekar started a Movement named Narmada Bachao Andolan to save the forests and wild life in the Narmada region. DEFORESTATION Deforestation,  clearance  or  clearing  is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a nonforest use. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use. About half of the world’s original forests had been destroyed by 2011, the majority during the previous 50 years. Since 1990 half of the world’s  rain forests  have been destroyed. More than half of the animal and plant species in the world live in tropical forests. The term  deforestation  is often misused to describe any activity where all trees in an area are removed. However in  temperate climates, the  removal of all trees in an area in conformance with  sustainable forestry  practices—is correctly described as  regeneration harvest. In  temperate mesic climates, natural regeneration of forest stands often will not occur in the absence of disturbance, whether natural or anthropogenic. Furthermore, biodiversity after regeneration harvest often mimics that found after natural disturbance, including biodiversity loss after naturally occurring rainforest destruction. Deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees are cut down to be used or sold as fuel (sometimes in the form of  charcoal) or timber, while cleared land is used as  pasture  for livestock, plantations of commodities, and settlements. AFFORESTATION Afforestation  is the establishment of a forest or stand of trees in an area where there was no forest. Reforestation  is the reestablishment of forest cover, either naturally (by natural seeding, coppice, or root suckers) or artificially (by direct seeding or planting). Many governments and non-governmental organizations directly engage in programs of  afforestation  to create forests, increase  carbon capture  and  sequestration, and help to anthropogenically improve  biodiversity. (In the UK, afforestation may mean converting the legal status of some land to â€Å"royal forest†. ) Special tools, e. g. tree planting bar, are used to make planting of trees easier and faster. Less than 0,5% of South Africa is covered by indigenous forests. Owing to their slow growth and sensitivity to logging, these forests cannot supply the majority of our country’s wood requirements. Additional fast-growing trees are planted to cater for the demand for wood products. Commercial forests, or plantations, cover 1,1% of South Africa. VANAMAHOTSAVA Van=forests mahotsava=festival So vanamahotsava is the festival of forests. The day to remind all of us that we should take care of priceless forests. Vanamahotsava is a big celebration day for forest officials, forest rangers, DFOs, employees, and their contractors, suppliers, mahaldars etc. On this day they all get together and take decision n promise for the coming year and calculate the present year’s gross income. On this day they enquire about their deposit in the bank, the deposit which is said to be their side income, happens to b their monthly salary and send their family member to the bank to meet the branch manager to enquire how to make fixed deposits in some Alia’s name. Actually they not require the meagre salary they earn as their legitimate income, when they earn daily in multiples of that. WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES India  has over 441  animal sanctuaries, referred to as  Wildlife sanctuaries  (IUCN  Category IVProtected Area). Among these, the 28  Tiger Reserves  are governed by  Project Tiger, and are of special significance in the conservation of the  tiger. Some wildlife sanctuaries are specifically named  Bird Sanctuary, e. g. Keoladeo National Park  before attained National Park status. Many National Parks were initially Wildlife Sanctuaries. Wildlife sanctuaries of national importance to conservation, usually due to some flagship faunal species, are named  National Wildlife Sanctuary, like  National Chambal (Gharial) Wildlife Sanctuary  for conserving the  Gharial  (1978) NATIONAL PARKS A  national park  is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. It is most commonly a  natural park. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, an international organization, the  International Union for Conservation of Nature  (IUCN), and its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined â€Å"National Park† as its  Category II  type of  protected areas. While ideas for this type of national park had been suggested previously, the United States established the first such one,  Yellowstone National Park, in 1872. The largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the  Northeast Greenland National Park, which was established in 1974. According to the IUCN, there were 6,555 national parks worldwide in 2006 that meet its criteria. CONCLUSION Wildlife conservation has become an increasingly important practice due to the negative effects of  human activity  on  wildlife. The science of extinction. An endangered species is defined as a population of a living being that is at the danger of becoming extinct because of several reasons. Either they are few in number or are threatened by the varying environmental or predation parameters. The endangered species in India have been identified by different national and international organisations like the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and the Wildlife Institute of India (WII). INTRODUCTION The  Wildlife in India  is a mix of species of different types of organisms. The forests of India are ancient in nature and composition. Indian people need to have more wildlife education. They are rich in variety and shelter a wide range of flora and fauna and insects. The fact they have existed from time immemorial is substantiated from the ancient texts all of which have some mention of the forests. Even today in parts of India the sacred forests exist and are worshiped. The wildlife in India is equally diverse and rich. From big animals like elephants and tiger and deers and bisons to small reptiles the Indian forests are teeming with life force. But unfortunately most Indians don’t understand the importance of this rich wealth of forest and wildlife India has. Felling of tress and illegal poaching of animals are fast depleting the forest and wild life wealth of India. So efforts must be taken to stop these malpractices and conserve the forest and wild life of India. KINDS OF NATURAL RESOURCES Natural resources are resources in the environment that have not been disturbed by mankind. By resource, one refers to any physical entity which has limited availability. These resources occur in their natural form. Few examples are as follows: 1. Air, wind, and atmosphere 2. Plants (Flora) 3. Animals (Fauna) 4. Agronomy (the science of using plants for food, fuel, feed, and fiber) 5. Wildlife 6. Forestry and Agroforestry 7. Coal and fossil fuels 8. Range and pasture . Soils 10. Water, oceans, lakes, and rivers Something that people generally aren’t aware of is that everything we use in everyday life is derived from natural resources. For example, milk, which comes from cows, vegetables that come from plants, salt which is a mineral, etc. Wood that we get from tree is another example. It can be used to build a house, make paper, burn in fireplaces and in stoves for cooking, etc. FOREST RESOURCES Forests have a tremendous importance to the humans. They constitute important components of our environment. Forests are important renewable natural resource. Forest ecosystem is dominated by trees, the species varying in different parts of the world. Forests are intimately linked with our culture and civilization. The chief products which forests supply is wood which is used as fuel raw materials, new materials for various industries as pulp, paper, board, plywood, timber for furniture items. Forests influence flood conditions by intercepting surface run-off infiltration, evaporation, and most importantly provide suitable habitats for a number of important plant and animal species and this help in maintaining a broad genetic base from which future strains of species could be developed. Forests also have aesthetic and tourist values. Forest resources play an important role in the development of regions, states and nations. SOIL EROSION Soil erosion is when the soil is  blown away  by the wind orwashed away  by the rain. Soil erosion is common in areas with steep slopes, where trees have been cut down, in droughts when crops and other vegetation grows poorly and in rural areas which are overpopulated. Nepal, in the Himalayan Mountains, has severe problems caused by increased population density and steep slopes. Soil erosion can be reduced by building terraces on hillsides, irrigation schemes to overcome droughts, planting more trees to bind the soil together and make wind breaks, and using fertilisers in overpopulated areas to make the soil more fertile. It is very important that the farming techniques used do not damage the structure of the soil, as this makes it easily eroded. Good farming techniques include contour ploughing, crop rotation and keeping the soil rich in humus. THINGS WE GET FROM FOREST Trees  are amazing! They provide beauty, shade, oxygen, clean air and water, fruit, nuts and wood products such as paper, furniture and housing. These benefits are well known. But did you know that literally thousands of products are made from trees? Many are surprising! From the medicine L-Dopa for treating Parkinson’s Disease, to film in your camera, forest products are all around us. When Trees are used  to make lumber and plywood, there are leftover chips, bark sawdust. The chips and sawdust are made into wood pulp for paper and other products. Not too long ago, those leftovers would have been burned as waste. Bark is used for landscaping, and to generate electricity for paper and lumber mills. Modern forest products operations are very efficient at using every part of a tree. Nothing is wasted. Wood  is made of tiny fibers  (cellulose)  and the natural glue that holds them together  (lignin). When wood is turned into pulp for paper, heat and chemicals dissolve the lignin and release the cellulose fibers. Byproducts of this process are used in asphalt, paint, chewing gum, detergents and turpentine. TYPES OF FOREST Piece of land that is thickly covered with trees is the general of definition of a forest. Forest is also known as woods, weald or woodlands. Forests cover approximately 30% of land and 9. 4% of all the planet earth. They are also responsible for regulating our planet’s climate and act as large purifiers of airs, by absorbing carbon dioxide, and giving out oxygen. Types of forests are classified differently from one and another depending upon the species developed with the age of forests, soil found in those forests, the density of trees and history of the geological region. So forests are divided into following main types: * Tropical forest * Sub tropical forest * Plantations * Boreal Forest * Temperate forest * Seasonal or monsoon forest CONSERVATION OF FOREST Our Government has also made laws to prevent unnecessary felling of trees. Government has decided to declare certain forests as protected areas. These protected areas are called Reserves or wild Life Sanctuaries. Here no one is allowed to hunt animals. There are about 150 wild life sanctuaries in India. People come from all over the world to see these sanctuaries. They consist of some of the most beautiful and rare animals. The largest sanctuary is in West Bengal. It is called the Sunderbans. This sanctuary is famous for its Bengal tigers. The other well known sanctuaries are Kaziranga in Assam, in Gujarat, Bundipur in Karnataka, Kanha in Madhya Pradesh. Corbetf in Uttar Pradesh, Palamau in Bihar and Periyar in Kerala. The Government has made plans to grow more trees. Vanmahotsava is celebrated every year to plant more trees. Thousands of school children participate in the Van-mahotsava and plant trees every year. Chipko Movement and Narmada Bachao Andolan are some of the movements to save forests and wild life in India. Chipko Movement was started by Shri Sunderlal Bahuguna in Tehri District of Uttar Pradesh. The women of a village in Tehri clung to the trees and protected them from being cut down. Shrimati Medha Patekar started a Movement named Narmada Bachao Andolan to save the forests and wild life in the Narmada region. DEFORESTATION Deforestation,  clearance  or  clearing  is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a nonforest use. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use. About half of the world’s original forests had been destroyed by 2011, the majority during the previous 50 years. Since 1990 half of the world’s  rain forests  have been destroyed. More than half of the animal and plant species in the world live in tropical forests. The term  deforestation  is often misused to describe any activity where all trees in an area are removed. However in  temperate climates, the  removal of all trees in an area in conformance with  sustainable forestry  practices—is correctly described as  regeneration harvest. In  temperate mesic climates, natural regeneration of forest stands often will not occur in the absence of disturbance, whether natural or anthropogenic. Furthermore, biodiversity after regeneration harvest often mimics that found after natural disturbance, including biodiversity loss after naturally occurring rainforest destruction. Deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees are cut down to be used or sold as fuel (sometimes in the form of  charcoal) or timber, while cleared land is used as  pasture  for livestock, plantations of commodities, and settlements. AFFORESTATION Afforestation  is the establishment of a forest or stand of trees in an area where there was no forest. Reforestation  is the reestablishment of forest cover, either naturally (by natural seeding, coppice, or root suckers) or artificially (by direct seeding or planting). Many governments and non-governmental organizations directly engage in programs of  afforestation  to create forests, increase  carbon capture  and  sequestration, and help to anthropogenically improve  biodiversity. (In the UK, afforestation may mean converting the legal status of some land to â€Å"royal forest†. ) Special tools, e. g. tree planting bar, are used to make planting of trees easier and faster. Less than 0,5% of South Africa is covered by indigenous forests. Owing to their slow growth and sensitivity to logging, these forests cannot supply the majority of our country’s wood requirements. Additional fast-growing trees are planted to cater for the demand for wood products. Commercial forests, or plantations, cover 1,1% of South Africa. VANAMAHOTSAVA Van=forests mahotsava=festival So vanamahotsava is the festival of forests. The day to remind all of us that we should take care of priceless forests. Vanamahotsava is a big celebration day for forest officials, forest rangers, DFOs, employees, and their contractors, suppliers, mahaldars etc. On this day they all get together and take decision n promise for the coming year and calculate the present year’s gross income. On this day they enquire about their deposit in the bank, the deposit which is said to be their side income, happens to b their monthly salary and send their family member to the bank to meet the branch manager to enquire how to make fixed deposits in some Alia’s name. Actually they not require the meagre salary they earn as their legitimate income, when they earn daily in multiples of that. WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES India  has over 441  animal sanctuaries, referred to as  Wildlife sanctuaries  (IUCN  Category IVProtected Area). Among these, the 28  Tiger Reserves  are governed by  Project Tiger, and are of special significance in the conservation of the  tiger. Some wildlife sanctuaries are specifically named  Bird Sanctuary, e. g. Keoladeo National Park  before attained National Park status. Many National Parks were initially Wildlife Sanctuaries. Wildlife sanctuaries of national importance to conservation, usually due to some flagship faunal species, are named  National Wildlife Sanctuary, like  National Chambal (Gharial) Wildlife Sanctuary  for conserving the  Gharial  (1978) NATIONAL PARKS A  national park  is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. It is most commonly a  natural park. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, an international organization, the  International Union for Conservation of Nature  (IUCN), and its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined â€Å"National Park† as its  Category II  type of  protected areas. While ideas for this type of national park had been suggested previously, the United States established the first such one,  Yellowstone National Park, in 1872. The largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the  Northeast Greenland National Park, which was established in 1974. According to the IUCN, there were 6,555 national parks worldwide in 2006 that meet its criteria. CONCLUSION Wildlife conservation has become an increasingly important practice due to the negative effects of  human activity  on  wildlife. The science of extinction. An endangered species is defined as a population of a living being that is at the danger of becoming extinct because of several reasons. Either they are few in number or are threatened by the varying environmental or predation parameters. The endangered species in India have been identified by different national and international organisations like the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and the Wildlife Institute of India (WII). CONCLUSION Wildlife conservation has become an increasingly important practice due to the negative effects of  human activity  on  wildlife. The science of extinction. An endangered species is defined as a population of a living being that is at the danger of becoming extinct because of several reasons. Either they are few in number or are threatened by the varying environmental or predation parameters. The endangered species in India have been identified by different national and international organisations like the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and the Wildlife Institute of India (WII). How to cite Forests, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

Markides Article Summary free essay sample

These building blocks include parameters, strategic ideas, what to do what not to do, flexibility, a proper environment, and constant improvement. Lets define these building blocks one by one. By parameters, Marked tells us that a company must decide on are who will be its targeted customers and who it will not target; what products or services it will offer its chosen customers and what it will not offer them; and how it will go about achieving all this-?what activities it will perform and what activities it will not perform. The deflation of strategic ideas is the same as parameters (on who to target, what to sell and how to do It) but one difference. That difference Is where these Ideas are coming from. Marmalades argues that these Ideas can come from anybody, anywhere, anytime, even because somebody had a gut feeling. These Ideas can also come from trial and error and from market changes. We will write a custom essay sample on Markides Article Summary or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page These market changes are basically feedback from the market which then leads an organization to modify or change its strategic ideas. It is crucial for a company to know its roles/duties or what it is supposed to do and f course what it is NOT supposed to do.If this is not clearly stated then there will be confusion. For example the CEO proclaims our strategy is crystal clear: we will do BBC and at the same time the employees of the organization see the firm doing EX. as well as BBC. What are our duties, goals, and how do we procure them? These actions have to be clearly defined and Is the responsibility of the top management. When a frog Is put In a pot of boiling water, It Jumps out; when Instead, the same from Is put In a pot of cold water and the water Is slowly brought to a boll, the frog days in the pot and boils to death. The reference that Marked makes to this saying is that in the same manner, if a company does not react to the constant changes taking place in its environment, it will find itself boiled to death. In other words you must be flexible in order to survive; you must keep up with the changes in your environment. A firm must be able to identify these changes early enough, must be ready to respond to these changes and must have the skills needed to compete in this new environment.Speaking of environment, the proper implement of a strategy needs to be in a certain type of environment, and environment that Is hospitable and promotes the chosen strategy. This environment Is composed of four elements which Include: an organizations culture, Its Incentives, Its structure, and Its people. Marmalades argues that no strategy remains unique forever because of the changing times, because of mimicking by competition, and because of customer needs constantly improve its strategic positioning (who-what-how combinations).It needs to constantly modify itself to whatever new changes may occur, whether its new technological advances, new markets, new laws, and etc. In response to Marked research I would like to say that I agree with him. Strategy is not Just a simple definition. Its a whole lot of detailed planning that has many structures within it. Strategy has to be broken down into its building blocks and further analyzed to see how these building blocks add up and create the big picture, how they add up and create strategy.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

arminianism vs calvinism Essays

arminianism vs calvinism Essays arminianism vs calvinism Essay arminianism vs calvinism Essay Arminianism and Calvinism Christian Doctrine Calvinism Historically, the doctrine of Calvinism arose out of the teaching of John Calvin. Five point Calvinism as it is exposed by its followers today was not taught by Calvin, but instead implied by those who carried his teachings to what they considered to be their logical conclusions. Calvinism is often called Reformed theology, and is founded in John Calvins Institutes of the Christian Religion. The Puritans and independent Presbyterians of Great Britain were heavily influenced by Calvins writings, but some of its greatest followers were Dutch. Most Baptist, Presbyterian, and Reformed churches base their doctrine off of John Calvins teachings. Calvinism can be summarized using the acronym TULIP, which stands for the following: 1 . Total depravity, is the belief that man is dead in trespasses and sins and totally unable to save himself. Many advocates of Calvinism carry this a step further, saying that man cannot even desire a relationship with God apart from His working in their hearts. 2. Unconditional election is the belief that in eternity, God chose or elected certain people to obtain salvation. Some Calvinists (although not all) carry this belief further nd teach what is referred to as double predestination, the teaching that God selected some people to go to heaven and others to go to hell, and there is nothing anyone can do to change Gods election. John Calvin taught this, but called it a terrible doctrine. 3. Limited atonement is the Calvinist teaching that Jesus did not die for the sins of the entire world, but that He only died for those that He elected to go to heaven. The argument is that Christs work on the Cross must be efficacious, that is, it must work for all for whom He died, that He could not have shed His blood for hose who are lost. Some Calvinists have gone to great lengths to explain limited atonement, saying, for example, that Jesus died for all, but does not pray for all, or tnat HIS aeat n tneoretlcally could save everyone, out Is eTTectlve only Tor tne elect. The end result is the same in each case the belief that Jesus only died effectively for some people, not all. 4. Irresistible grace is the doctrine that teaches that God will draw to Himself those whom He elected regardless of their rebellion against Him. It is the belief that man cannot resist the drawing of God to Himself. . Perseverance of the saints, or eternal security, is the doctrine that often attracts people to Calvinism because it is the belief that a true born again Christian cannot lose or give up his salvation because salvation is entirely Gods work, not mans. Arminianism Jacobus Games) Arminius was a Dutch theologian who lived from 1560-1609. Arminius taught that man is only guilty of Adams sin when he sins voluntarily . Arminius started out as a strict Calvinist, but later modified his views, which were expressed in a document called The Remonstrance in 1610. Arminianism is the heological basis for the Methodist, Wesleyan, Nazarene, Pentecostal, Free Will Baptist, Holiness, and many charismatic churches. Arminianism teaches: 1 . Election based on knowledge, the belief that God chose those who would be saved in eternity past based on His foreknowledge of those who would respond to and receive the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Arminianism rejects the concept that God elected anyone for hell. 2. Unlimited atonement is the belief that Jesus died on the Cross for all people, that His blood is sufficient to pay the penalty for the sins of every man, woman, and child who has ever lived. Thus, all mankind is savable. 3. Natural inability is the teaching that man cannot save Himself, but that the Holy Spirit must effect the new birth in him. Strict Arminians do not believe that man is totally depraved and condemned as a result of Adams sin. . Prevenient grace is the belief that the preparatory work of the Holy Spirit enables the believer to respond to the Gospel and to cooperate with God in the salvation of that person. 5. Conditional perseverance is the belief that man can choose to reject God, and therefore lose his salvation, even after he has been born again. Rather than the once saved always saved doctrine of the Calvinists, the Arminian believes that you must abide in Christ to be saved, and that you can ch oose to walk away from God. Arminius himself, and his early followers, stated that they were unsure of this doctrine and that it required further Biblical study. Evaluation of the Doctrines At the heart of the controversy between Calvinism and Arminianism is the emphasis on the sovereignty of God by the Calvinists and on the free will of man, or human responsibility, by the Arminians. Arminians teach that man has free will and hat God will never interrupt or take that free will away. They say that God has obligated Himself to respect the free choice with which He created us. Calvinism, on the other hand, emphasizes that God is in total control of everything, and that nothing can happen that He does not plan and direct, including mans salvation. Both positions are logical, both have Scriptures to back up each of their five points, and both have truth to them. Both are right in what they claim, but both are wrong in what they deny. If truth is pressed to the point of excluding another truth, it becomes an error. The Bible presents a theology that is more man centered than calvinists make it out to be, and theology that is more divine than arminianism present it as. Certainly, the Bible does teach that God is sovereign (Psalm 135:6; Daniel 4:35, Ephesians 1:1 1), and that Dellevers are preaestlnea ana elected Dy (Romans B) to spend eternity wltn However, the bible never associates election with damnation. Scriptures teach that God elects for salvation, but that unbelievers are in hell by their own choice. Every passage of the Bible that speaks of election deals with it in the context of salvation nd not damnation. It is simply not biblical to say someone is elect for hell. The idea of total depravity is consistent with Scripture (Ephesians 2:1, Romans 3:1 1), but the doctrine of limited atonement, that Jesus did not die for the sins of the whole world, is clearly anti-Biblical Cohn 3:16, I Timothy 2:6, II Peter 2: 1, I John 2:2). The Bible teaches that Jesus died for everyones sins and that everyone is able to be saved if they will repent and turn to Christ. Limited atonement is non-Biblical doctrine. Cohn 3:16,17; Romans 5:8, 18; II Corinthians 5:14,15; 1 Timothy 2:4; 4:10; Hebrews 2:9; 10:29; II Peter 2:1; I John 2:2; 4:14. Irresistible grace is taught by some, who do not understand the concept, to mean that God drags people to Himself contrary to their wills. Actually, the Biblical view, and the view of most Calvinists, is the belief that God works on our wills so as to make us willing to surrender to Him. In other words, He makes us willing to come to Christ for salvation. Many Scriptures teach that a true believer is safe and secure in Christ, tha t salvation doesnt depend on our ability to keep ourselves, but on Gods ability to keep s. l John 5:11-13; John 10:28; Romans 5:1 and 8: 1). The only condition for salvation is faith in Christ Cohn 3:16; Acts 16:31; Romans 10:9). On the other hand, the Bible teaches us that we must abide in Christ Cohn 15; Luke 13:14; Colossians 1:29; II Timothy 2:5; Hebrews 6:4-6; I Peter 1:10) to persevere in salvation. Finding a Balance The truth of Gods Word flows between the extremes of Calvinism and Arminianism. Both Calvinism and Arminianism have truth in their argument, yet both contain error. Election and predestination are Biblical doctrines. God knows verything and therefore He cannot learn anything or be surprised by anything. He knows, and has known from eternity past, who will exercise their free will to accept Him and who will reject Him. The former are the elect, the latter are non-elect. Every person who is not saved will have only himself to blame; God doesnt send anyone to hell, people choose to go there by exercising their free will to reject Christ. On the other hand, no one who is saved will be able to take any of the credit. Our salvation is 100% Gods work, and is based entirely on the work of the Cross. We were ead in trespasses and sins, destined for hell, when God in His grace, drew us to Himself, convinced us of our sin and our need for a Savior, and allowed us to call Jesus Lord. God will do everything short of making humanity puppets in order for Him to draw us towards salvation but this does not mean that His grace is irresistible. The concept of a limited atonement, that Jesus only died for the elect, and not for the sins of all people, is clearly unbiblical. The Bible is very clear that Jesus death on the cross was for all people, and that there is sufficient power in His blood to cleanse way every sin. Whosoever will may come is meaningless if man has no free will and no ability to choose God. The question of whether or not a Christian can lose or walk away from salvation is academic. When a person who claims to be a Christian and shows some fruit of salvatlon turns nls DacK on ana llves tne IITe 0T a pagan, tne Armlnlan says ne was saved and is now not saved, while the Cal vinist would say that he was either never really saved to start with, or that he is severely backslidden, but his salvation is secure. Ultimately, no one knows the truth but God. The true believer in Christ never has to doubt his salvation. He can rest in the perfect assurance that God saved him and will keep him, and nothing will ever separate him from Gods love in time or eternity. We are secure in Christ, kept by the His loving grace. It is important to remember that both Calvinism and Arminianism are systems of theology devised by godly, devout, Bible-believing men. Both systems are based on the word of God, and both contain important elements of truth, but neither can be substituted for reading and believing the word of God. The New Testament church new nothing of either system, they simply believed what God had revealed in His word. The problem arises when it seems that some of what God has revealed contradicts something else He revealed. How can man be absolutely free and God absolutely sovereign and in control at the same time? How can salvation be entirely Gods work, yet simultaneously require the cooperation of men? These questions are ultimately unanswerable. The Bible teaches both the sovereignty of God and the free will of man. It teaches what appears to be unconditional perseverance in some places and conditional perseverance in others. The human mind can never understand the balance between these points because God is simply too big for us to understand. Both systems of theology emphasize one set of chapters or verses while ignoring or twisting another. We are not called to understand God, only to believe Him. We are free willed creations, responsible for our own sin, hopelessly lost. Jesus not only died for us, He drew us to Himself with love and grace. Jesus died for all of us and desires fellowship with all of us. Gods election excludes no one; Jesus atonement includes everyone. Its as if we are looking at two sides of the same coin. Election is Gods side, free will is our side. Rather than interpreting the Bible based on any theological or philosophical structure, we are to simply read and believe it. As we teach the Scriptures from Genesis to Revelation, verse by verse, in context, we will at times sound like devout Calvinists, preaching passages which emphasize Gods sovereignty, while at other times we will seem like Arminians, when we preach the passages which emphasize mans responsibility. The key is to find a balance to stay focused on the Word of God, and not become distracted by the doctrines of men.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

How to Write Dialogue That Captivates Your Reader

How to Write Dialogue That Captivates Your Reader How to Write Dialogue That Captivates Your Reader And unfortunately, your first reader will be an agent or an editor. You can’t slip anything boring past them. Your job is to make every word count. That’s the way to keep your reader riveted until the final page- no small task. Making every word count is how to write compelling dialogue. Readers love dialogue because: It breaks up intimidating blocks of narrative summary. It differentiates (through dialect and word choice) and reveals characters. Done well, it can move the story without author intrusion. But, as you have likely discovered, writing great dialogue is hard. If yours is bloated or obvious or telling or is in any other way uninteresting, readers won’t stay with you long. So how about we leave them no choice? Need help writing your novel?  Click here to download my ultimate 12-step guide. How to Write Dialogue in 6 Steps Cut to the Bone Reveal Backstory Reveal Character Be Subtle Read Your Dialogue Out Loud Create a Make My Day Moment Step 1. Cut to the Bone Unless you need to reveal a character as a brainiac or a blowhard pretending to be one, omit needless words. Obviously, you wouldn’t render a conversation the way a court transcript includes repetition and even um, ah, uh, etc. But even beyond that, see how much you can chop without losing the point. Like this: â€Å"What do you want to do this  Sunday?  I thought wWe could go to the amusement park.† â€Å"I was thinking about renting a rowboat,† Vladimir said.  on one of the lakes.† â€Å"Oh, Vladimir, that sounds wonderful! I’ve never gone rowing  before.† That doesn’t mean all your dialogue has to be short and choppy- just that you’ll cut the dead wood to keep to the point. You’ll be surprised by how much power it adds to your prose. Step 2. Reveal Backstory Layering in backstory through dialogue is another way to keep your reader turning pages. Hinting at some incident for the first time is an automatic setup that demands a payoff. Example: As they headed toward the house, Janet whispered, â€Å"Can we not have a repeat of Cincinnati?† Jeanie shot her a double take. â€Å"Believe me, I don’t want that any more than you do.† â€Å"Good,† Janet said. â€Å"I mean- † â€Å"Can we not talk about it, please?† What normal reader wouldn’t assume they will talk about it at some point and stay with the story until they do? As the story progresses, you can reveal more and more about your protagonist’s past and have your story come full circle. This accomplishes two things: it offers a setup that should intrigue the reader, and it helps you avoid flashbacks. Need help writing your novel?  Click here to download my ultimate 12-step guide. Step 3. Reveal Character Your reader learns a lot about your characters through dialogue. You don’t have to TELL us they’re sarcastic, witty, narcissistic, kind, or anything else. You can SHOW us by how they interact and by what they say. Step 4. Be Subtle Dialogue can accomplish a number of tasks. Here are three: 1. Subtext- where people say other than what they mean. This can be fun. Example: My friend sold a short story to a general-market magazine years ago about a girl named Cindy who falls in love with the slightly older boy next door, who sees her as just a little sister type. When they get to high school, Tommy is the big man on campus, captain of the football team, dating the head cheerleader, and pretty much ignoring Cindy. She’s just his younger neighbor and friend. Tommy leaves for college and word soon gets back to Cindy during her senior year of high school that he and his girlfriend have broken up. So when he comes home after his freshman year of college and is changing a tire on his car, Cindy just happens to walk outside. She strikes up a conversation with Tommy, and he looks up, stunned. Who is this beautylittle Cindy from next door? She says, â€Å"Making a change, are you?† Tommy looks at the tire and back at her and says, â€Å"Yeah, I actually I am making a change.† Cindy says, â€Å"Well, I’ve heard that rotating can be a good thing.† And he says, â€Å"Yeah, I’ve heard that too.† That’s subtext. They’re not saying what they really mean. They’re not really talking about changing the tire, are they? 2. Sidestepping- when a character responds to a question without answering it. Instead, what the character says is so profound and unexpected that it offers a whole new understanding of what’s going on. Example: In the movie Patch Adams, the late Robin Williams played a brilliant young doctor who believes the Old Testament adage that â€Å"laughter is the best medicine.† He goes into the children’s cancer ward of a hospital wearing an inflated surgical glove on his head, making him look like a rooster. He wears bedpans for shoes and stomps about, flapping his arms and squawking. The children find it hilarious, but hospital directors consider it undignified and demand he stop. Patch Adams is trying to make one girl in particular- a hospital volunteer- laugh. But while everyone else thinks he’s funny, she never cracks a smile. Finally, Patch leaves the hospital to open a clinic in the country. Imagine his surprise when that humorless young lady appears to help him set up. At one point, she goes outside to rest, so Patch follows and sits opposite her. He says, â€Å"I’ve got to ask. Everybody thinks I’m hysterical, but you. I’ve tried everything. What is it with you? Why don’t you ever think anything I say is funny?† After several seconds of silence, she says, â€Å"Men have liked me all my lifeall my life† And we realize by the way she says it, she was abused as a child. Suddenly, we understand what this girl is all about. She doesn’t trust men, and she doesn’t laugh, because life isn’t funny. The way she responded did not answer his question. Her problem had nothing to do with him or his humor. Finally, Patch realizes that some things aren’t funny. Some things you just don’t make fun of. Sometimes, you need to quit cracking jokes and just listen. It’s a great turnaround in the story. And an example of sidestep dialogue. 3. Silence The old truism that silence can be golden rings true for our last technique. Many, including Abraham Lincoln, have been credited with the line: â€Å"Better to remain silent and be thought a fool than to speak and remove all doubt.† One of the toughest things to learn as a writer is to avoid filling silent gaps. Just like we shouldn’t tell what’s not happening in a story, neither do we need to write that someone didn’t respond or didn’t answer. If you don’t say they did, the reader will know they didn’t. Example: â€Å"Well John,† Linda said, â€Å"what do you have to say for yourself?† John set his jaw and stared out the window. â€Å"I’m waiting,† she said. He lit a cigarette. Linda shook her head. â€Å"I swear, John, honestly.† Now, too many writers feel the need to write here, â€Å"But he refused to say anything,† or â€Å"But he never responded.† Don’t! We know, we get it- and it’s loud, effective, silent dialogue. The reader knows because John is saying nothing, and yet saying everything. Silence is golden. Step 5. Read Your Dialogue Out Loud One way to be certain your dialogue flows is to read it aloud or even act it out. Anything that doesn’t sound right won’t read right either, so rewrite it until it does. Step 6. Create a â€Å"Make My Day† Moment Certain iconic lines of dialogue have become as legendary as the films and books they originate from: â€Å"Frankly my dear† â€Å"There’s no place like home.† â€Å"We’re not in Kansas anymore.† â€Å"To my big brother George, the richest man in town.† â€Å"What we have here is failure to communicate.† â€Å"Go ahead, make my day.† â€Å"May the force be with you.† â€Å"Houston, we have a problem.† â€Å"Run, Forrest, run!† â€Å"You had me at hello.† Most writers - even bestselling novelists - never create such an unforgettable line of dialogue. But striving to create one is a worthy effort. Ironically, it should fit so seamlessly it doesn’t draw attention to itself until fans begin quoting it. How to Use Dialogue Tags to Identify Speakers Dialogue attribution tags- he said, she said, etc.- indicate who is speaking. Resist the urge to get creative here. Said is almost always your best choice. Teachers who urge you to find alternatives are usually unpublished and believe agents and editors will be impressed. Trust me, they won’t be. Avoid mannerisms of attribution. People say things. They don’t wheeze, gasp, sigh, laugh, grunt or snort them. They might do any of those things while saying them, which might be worth mentioning, but the emphasis should be on what is said, and readers just need to know who is saying it. Keep it simple. All those other descriptors turn the spotlight on an intrusive writer. Sometimes people whisper or shout or mumble, but let their choice of words indicate they’re grumbling, etc. If it’s important that they sigh or laugh, separate that action from the dialogue. Jim sighed. â€Å"I can’t take this anymore.† Not: Jim sighed, â€Å"I can’t take this anymore.† Though you read them in school readers and classic fiction, attribution tags such as use of reply, retort, exclaim, and declare have become clicheÃŒ d and archaic. You’ll still see them occasionally, but I suggest not using them. Often no attribution is needed. Use dialogue tags only when the reader wouldn’t otherwise know who’s speaking. I once wrote an entire novel, The Last Operative, without attributing a single line of dialogue. Not a said, an asked, anything. I made clear through action who was speaking, and not one reader, even my editor, noticed. A common error is characters addressing each other by name too often. Real people rarely do this, and it often seems planted only to avoid a dialogue tag. Fictional dialogue should sound real. Don’t start your dialogue attribution tag with said. Rather, end with said. said Joe or said Mary, reads like a children’s book. Substitute he and she for the names and that will make it obvious. said he or said she just doesn’t sound right. Use said after the name for the best sound. Joe said or Mary said. Resist the urge to explain, and give the reader credit. The amateur writer often writes something like this: â€Å"I’m beat,† exclaimed John tiredly. Besides telling and not showing - violating a cardinal rule of writing - it uses the archaic exclaimed for said, misplaces that before the name rather than after, and adds the redundant tiredly. The pro would write: John dropped onto the couch. â€Å"I’m beat.† That shows rather than tells, and because John’s action has been described, we don’t need an attribution tag to know he’s speaking. How to Punctuate Dialogue Few things expose a beginner like incorrect punctuation, especially in dialogue. Agents and editors justifiably wonder if you read dialogue, let alone whether you can write it, if you write something like: â€Å"I don’t know.† she said. Or, â€Å"What do you think?† He said. To avoid common mistakes: Start a new paragraph for each speaker When one character’s dialogue extends to more than one paragraph, start each subsequent paragraph with a double quotation mark, and place your closing double quotation mark only at the end of the final paragraph. Place punctuation inside the quotation marks, the dialogue tag outside: â€Å"John was just here asking about you,† Jim said. The attribution tag goes after the first clause of a compound sentence: â€Å"Not tonight,† he said, â€Å"not in this weather.† When dialogue ends with a question or exclamation mark, the dialogue tag following the quotation marks should be lowercase:   Ã¢â‚¬Å"I’m glad you’re here!† she said. Action before dialogue takes a separate sentence: Anna shook her head. â€Å"I can’t believe she’s gone!† Quoting within a quote requires single quotation marks: â€Å"Lucy, Mom specifically said, ‘Do not cut your bangs,’ and you did it anyway!† When action or attribution interrupts dialogue, use lowercase as dialogue resumes: â€Å"That,† she said, â€Å"hurt bad.† Dialogue Examples If you’re old enough to remember the original Twilight Zone (hosted by Rod Serling) or Dragnet (starring and narrated by Jack Webb), you know how dialogue set the tone for their shows. Serling was sometimes whimsical, sometimes mysterious, but always provocative. â€Å"Consider one middle-aged adult, lost in space and time†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Jack Webb, as L.A. police detective Sergeant Joe Friday, was always deadly serious and monotone. â€Å"Just the facts, ma’am.† Contrast those with the dialogue between Tom and his Aunt Polly in Tom Sawyer. If you’re anything like me, you were laughing from page 1. There! I mighta thought of that closet. What you been doing in there? Nothing. Nothing! Look at your hands. And look at your mouth. What IS that truck? I dont know, aunt. Well, I know. Its jam- thats what it is. Forty times Ive said if you didnt let that jam alone Id skin you. Hand me that switch. The switch hovered in the air- the peril was desperate- My! Look behind you, aunt! The old lady whirled round and snatched her skirts out of danger. The lad fled on the instant, scrambled up the highboard fence, and disappeared over it. Great dialogue can set the tone for your entire story and also differentiate characters, as we discussed earlier. In Huckleberry Finn,  Mark Twain delineates between Huck the Southern white boy and Jim the runaway slave by just hinting at their respective accents. Twain doesn’t use tags to tell who’s speaking, yet the reader never confuses the two. Huck says, â€Å"Jim, did y’all ever see a king?† Y’all is the only word in that sentence that implies a Southern accent, but it’s enough. Jim says, â€Å"I sho enough did.† Huck says, â€Å"You liar, Jim. You never seen no king.† Jim says, â€Å"I seen foh kings in a deck of cards.† Huck’s bad grammar and Jim’s sho and foh are the only hints of their dialects. Contrived phonetic spelling would slow the reading, but look what Twain accomplished with simple choices. The Cardinal Sin of Dialogue The last thing you want is to produce on-the-nose dialogue. Apply to your own work those principles and the tools I’ve outlined here, and I believe you’ll immediately see a huge difference. So will your reader. In the Comments, ask me any questions regarding how to write dialogue. Need help writing your novel?  Click here to download my ultimate 12-step guide.